What is vegan?

vegan is a community ecology package for R, implementing many popular methods including those for the analysis of ecological diversity and for multivariate analysis of community data.


  • Diversity analysis: Shannon, Simpson, Fisher indices, Rényi diversities and Hill numbers.
  • Species abundance models: Fisher and Preston models, species abundance distributions.
  • Analysis of species richness: species accumulation curves, extrapolated richness.
  • Ordination: support and meta functions for NMDS, redundancy analysis, constrained correspondence analysis, constrained analysis of proximities (all three with partial analysis),
  • Support functions for ordination: dissimilarity indices, extended dissimilarities, Procrustes analysis, ordination diagnostics, permutation tests.
  • Ordination and environment: vector fitting, centroid fitting and smooth surface fitting, adding species scores as weighted averages, adding convex hull, SD ellipses, arrows etc. to ordination.
  • Dissimilarity analyses: ANOVA using dissimilarities, ANOSIM, MRPP, BIOENV, Mantel and partial Mantel tests.
  • Data standardization: Hellinger, Wisconsin, Chi-square, Beals smoothing.

Bugs, feature requests

Bug reports and feature requests should be filed on Github.


vegan is released under the GNU General Public Licence Version 2.